Fed. R. Civ. P. 65 allows a district court to issue a temporary restraining order (TRO) and/or a preliminary injunction to maintain the status quo and avoid irreparable harm while a suit is pending. The process is intended to move quickly, and in the EDVA, it can move very quickly. In a recent example, an EDVA judge resolved a motion for preliminary injunction in a week, ordering the defendant to respond six days after the motion was filed and ruling on the motion from the bench the following day. See Northern Virginia Citizens As’n., Inc. v. Federal Highway Admin., et al., Case No. 1:23-cv-00356-LMB-IDD (E.D. Va. April 7, 2023) (ECF No. 40).

Given the accelerated speed of the process, particularly in the EDVA, below is a discussion of common questions relating to Rule 65 motions in the EDVA: